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タイトル: 内モンゴル自治区における定住型放牧の草原植生への影響 : 繋牧実験による検証
その他のタイトル: Validation of the grazing impacts of vegetation in Inner Mongolian rangeland of settled region : Case study on the grazing ability and the behaviour of sheep on tethering
著者: HAIRIHAN
ハイリハン
発行日: 12-May-2017
抄録: 【Research Objectives】Since 1990, the central China's policy has converted the nomadic grazing of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to settled grazing where the fences installed have caused over-grazing in a small rangeland (Hoshino et al., 2009). When the grazing intensity (the number of domestic animals in a unit area) is high, the surrounding of nomadic residents will be facing strong treading pressure and feeding pressure, which causes serious grassland degradation and land destruction (Masayuki,1994). Masayuki also reported that the types of plants change with the grazing intensity. However, Saixiyalatu and his colleagues (2007) suggested that moderate grazing pressure is needed to maintain the biodiversity of grassland. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the changing progress of the vegetation at Abag Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where the settled grazing is occurring, by collecting data of vegetation, soil moisture, soil hardness, movement pattern of domestic animals, feeding characteristics and etc. 【Research Methods】 This research was carried out at a permanent grazing area Abag Banner, which located at the northern part of Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The experiment was conducted in a farm in which the sheep make up the largest group. And most of them are four-year-old female sheep. Therefore, we selected three four-year-old female sheep (each weighing 51kg, 46kg and 41kg) and put one GPS logger on each of them. Then, we allowed them to graze at three selected sites (A, B and C). The string grazing experiment (length of rope = 6m; diameter of circular site = 12m; total circular site area = 113.10m^2) was carried out for nine days (whereby the first 4 days were to allow them to adapt). Besides, we installed four vegetation survey quadrats (1m x 1m) in the site and identified the plant species, its length, and each species coverage, the soil hardness and moisture in the quadrats for all nine days. We also measured the weight of sheep twice a day. In addition, we installed five quadrats of the same size next to the site (Fig. 1). After nine days, the plants of the 9 quadrats were cut from the ground, divided by plant type, and each species dry matter weight were measured for each species to calculate the feeding amount of each plant genus, [Result and Discussion] 1) In the farm, Stipa sp. and Convolvulus sp. are the dominant species. On day 1, the sheep largely consumed both Allium sp. and Carex sp. and thus we can understand the palatability of the sheep (Table 1). The A site where both Alliurn sp. and Carex sp. are dominant, the Simpson Diversity Index increased from 0.832 to 0.851 in first 3 days. 2) The soil harness for A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B3 and B4 quadrats increased to 0.66 mm, 1.33 mm, 1.67 mm, 1 mm, 1.65 mm, 1 mm and 1 mm respectively while B2, C1 and C4 quadrats decreased to 1.67 mm, 1.32 mm, 1.3 mm respectively. The correlation coefficient between the soil moisture and grazing days is not significant (R^2= 0.3312, P< 0.01, N= 10). 3) At the experiment site, the bare land area increased from day 1 to day 5 is 65%, 67%, 68%, 81% and 90% respectively. 4) For the weight of the sheep, sheep A lost 0.5 kg on both 4^<th> and 5th day; sheep B weight does not change throughout the five days and sheep C lost 0.5 kg on the 4th day. The long period of the research (more than 3 days) have caused insufficient plants to be provided to the sheep. Thus, the sheep even eat up the root of their favorite plants. Besides, we confirmed that both over hard and loose soil (degraded soil) have caused the enlargement of the bare land. Therefore, we would like to suggest that letting a sheep to graze in an area of 113.10m^2 for 3 continuous days only is the most sustainable grazing method.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10659/4908
学位授与年月日: 2016
学位名: 酪農学
学位授与機関: 酪農学園大学
出現コレクション:学位論文(修士)

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